Molecular NanoMachines (MNMs) are small molecules that are approximately 1 nm, comparable in size to classical drugs. But, they differ, in that they have a built-in motor that can rotate 12,000 times faster than the highest-revving car that has ever been built.
MNMs are different from classical nanoparticles (100 nm or less), in that they are smaller than typical nanoparticles and are more similar in size and composition to a classical drug (e.g., antibiotics). But, in contrast to classical drugs, they have a built-in motor that can rotate at 120,000,000 rpm to perform mechanical work. This is 12,000 times faster than the highest-revving car that has ever been made. Thus, MNMs can be considered a new drug entity with properties at the frontier between classical drugs and classical nanoparticles.
Nanoparticles, due to their relatively large size, typically face challenges while circulating in the bloodstream due to recognition by the immune system and sequestration by organs, such as the liver and spleen. Scientists are actively investigating ways to avoid the sequestration of nanoparticles so that they can be delivered at the appropriate amount to a specific organ. This remains a challenging problem for the delivery of nanoparticles. We believe that MNMs, based on their small size of 1 nm, will avoid sequestration by the spleen and should not encounter circulation issues in the bloodstream.
|Size||1 nm||< 1 nm -100 nm|
|Sequestration by spleen||Probably no||Yes|
|Synthesis||Atomic precision and size reproducibility||Not atomic precision and size variability|
|Composition||Only organic -biocompatible||Inorganic materials may be present|
|Mechanical Action||Yes||Typically, No|