Molecular NanoMachines (MNMs) drill holes and kill cells by mechanical action, in contrast to the chemical activity in PDT. Based on its unique and contrasting mode of action, MNMs have many advantages over PDT.

People read about our technology and assume that it is just another type of PDT. However, we have demonstrated that MNMs kill cells by a completely different mechanism than PDT. Our results suggest that MNMs drill holes and kill cells through mechanical force, whereas PDT does so by chemical reactions from the production of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, our findings have demonstrated that MNMs suppress the formation of ROS. Thus, MNMs kill by not only different but also opposing effects versus PDT.

The ROS production in PDT requires a good supply of oxygen in the organs. However, in tumors with low oxygen levels, PDT does not work effectively, and such tumors can become resistant to PDT. Because MNMs do not need oxygen, we believe that they will treat tumors, regardless of oxygen levels, and thus should remain effective against hypoxic PDT-resistant tumors. In other words, MNM therapy has advantages, where PDT has limitations.

Another benefit of MNMs is that they can be used for selective and controlled drug delivery. The controlled drilling of holes into cells can be used to deliver selective therapeutic cargo into specific cell types. In contrast, PDT is non-specific and can not be used for such applications.